HEADLINES:

My meeting with a forgotten terrorist in Somalia

0
Sunday March 12, 2017 - 05:12:00 in Articles by Super Admin
  • Visits: 4724
  • (Rating 0.0/5 Stars) Total Votes: 0
  • 1 0
  • Share via Social Media

    My meeting with a forgotten terrorist in Somalia

    Once an Al Shabab leader, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys now lives in legal limbo, a case study in Somalia's stumbling search for stability.

    Share on Twitter Share on facebook Share on Digg Share on Stumbleupon Share on Delicious Share on Google Plus

Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, his beard dyed red, is under house arrest in Mogadishu. (MICHELLE SHEPHARD / TORONTO STAR)
Once an Al Shabab leader, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys now lives in legal limbo, a case study in Somalia's stumbling search for stability.

MOGADISHU, SOMALIA—A man who has been called everything from a terrorist, a visionary, a clan elder, a religious scholar, a killer and a statesmen greets me on his driveway with a wave and a grin. 

Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys seems eager for visitors. House arrest does not agree with those who pride themselves as leaders, not captives. 

It has been a decade since our last interview in Mogadishu, when he was the spiritual head of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which the George W. Bush administration warned was "Africa’s Taliban.” 

Aweys, listed both by the U.S. and United Nations as global terrorist associated with Al Qaeda, hasn’t changed much in 10 years; his face is relatively unlined for a septuagenarian, his beard still dyed vibrant henna red, his opinion that Somalia should be governed by Islamic law unwavering.

But Somalia — and the world — has. Bush to Barack Obama to Donald Trump, four Somali presidents and seven prime ministers, the rise and (somewhat) decline of East Africa’s Al Qaeda branch, Al Shabab, the rise and (somewhat) decline of Daesh, also known as ISIS and ISIL.

In an exclusive interview inside his home where he lives with some of his wives and 28 children, Aweys spoke at length about his history with the ICU, the Shabab and eventual split with the group’s leaders. A decade ago he could have shaped Somalia — today the country seems at a loss over what to do with him.

The conversation ranged from African geopolitics to religion and, as is so often the case in terrorism’s theatre of the absurd, the bizarre and personal. He wanted to know my marital status, was horrified that I did not have kids and said he wished he could offer me one of his. When he asked my religion and I hesitated, he started shouting, both accusingly and gleefully, "Atheist. Atheist!” 

Ask Somali government officials or community leaders what they think of Aweys and the word most often used, also accusingly, is "stubborn.” 

Which is one reason why Aweys, once one of Somalia’s most influential men due to his clan affiliation and militant pedigree, remains confined to his home in forced retirement. 

 


 

Aweys, listed both by the U.S. and United Nations as global terrorist associated with Al Qaeda, hasn’t changed much in 10 years; his face is relatively unlined for a septuagenarian, his beard still dyed vibrant henna red, his opinion that Somalia should be governed by Islamic law unwavering.
Aweys, listed both by the U.S. and United Nations as global terrorist associated with Al Qaeda, hasn’t changed much in 10 years; his face is relatively unlined for a septuagenarian, his beard still dyed vibrant henna red, his opinion that Somalia should be governed by Islamic law unwavering.

The interview with Aweys was conducted while Obama was in power and before Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, known popularly as "Farmajo,” was elected Feb. 8 as Somalia’s president.

I had been granted rare access last year on the condition that the story would not be published immediately. There were sensitive diplomatic negotiations underway with Qatar at the time — reportedly to provide Aweys sanctuary in Doha. 

Aweys ostensibly could face terrorism charges for his association with Al Shabab, but a trial is unlikely. He is a prominent member of Somalia’s influential Habar Gadir, a subclan of Hiwaye, and the previous government was unwilling to risk the backlash if he were prosecuted or, if found guilty, sentenced to death.

The talks with Doha have since broken down and, according to a Somali security official, Aweys remains under house arrest. He has been in government custody since his 2013 surrender,which followed months of negotiations with clan elders and government officials.

At the time he left the Shabab, the group’s executive was fractured and Aweys’ life was threatened by leader Ahmed Godane. American Omar Hammami, who was wanted by the FBI for a bounty of $5 million, was among those dissidents who were assassinated by Godane’s men. (Godane was later killed by a U.S. drone in 2014). 

Aweys claims he was not a "member” but merely "associated” with Al Shabab. "There’s a difference between supporting them and joining them. We supported them in that they’re not our enemies, but I didn’t join them,” he said, leaning forward on his plastic lawn chair. "They used to fight with our enemies so we supported that. I disagreed with some of their actions though.”

Aweys had once ruled a breakaway Islamist faction known as the Hizbul Islam that fought against Al Shabab. But in December 2010, the two groups officially merged. 

He said he condemned the group’s killing of civilians, citing friends whom had been victims. But that’s easy to say while under house arrest. During his years with the Shabab, the group launched some of their most devastating assaults, including the attack at Kenya’s Westgate Mall, which killed 67.

Aweys was one of the public faces of Al Shabab and he did not condemn the deaths of innocents at the time. When asked why, Aweys at first tells me he used to read Italian Marxist theorist Antonio Gramsci, and "the socialist movements used to kill anyone who was their enemy.”

When pressed further, he concedes that "it is not right to condemn 100 people to death when you’re trying to get one.” 

Then why not speak out?

He continued to dodge the question, saying that Islam forbids such slaughter of innocents. 

Why. Not. Speak. Out. At. The. Time?

"We were fighting a war and that is not wrong in itself, sometimes there are going to be crimes committed,” he said.

"In a military sense it is normal. … The government is killing innocent people on the other side as well. So it’s not right … war allows for unbelievable things to happen.”

 


 

For years, the carcass of a Russian aircraft shot down in 2007 marred the runway of Mogadishu's airport. It finally got moved to a side street, where it was stripped for parts.
For years, the carcass of a Russian aircraft shot down in 2007 marred the runway of Mogadishu's airport. It finally got moved to a side street, where it was stripped for parts.   (MICHELLE SHEPHARD)  

Understanding Aweys today means going back to 2006. Mogadishu was a completely different city. 

There were only a few flights a week and the airport runway was a concrete strip marred by the carcass of a crashed Russian plane. Just a handful of Westerners travelled to the capital during the Islamic Courts Union’s six-month rule, as it was almost impossible to arrive without the group’s prior permission. 

Foreign passports were stamped at the airport with a "visa” that cost US$250, even though the ICU was not an official government. Luggage was thrown in pile on the tarmac so men with metal detectors could conduct a symphony of beeps and squeals, although they didn’t actually open any of our bags. 

Today, flights come and go throughout the day and passengers enter a pristine airport, with functioning metal detectors and luggage belts, shining like a lounge for Dubai’s Emirates Airlines rather than a typical East African terminal.

Throughout my interview in 2006, Aweys, felled by the flu and listless during his Ramadan fast, mainly answered questions with questions. Most critically, it was hard to determine what influence he exerted over the ICU leadership, whose other members were considered moderate.

But the most surprising aspect of our visit to Mogadishu was not that Aweys agreed to an interview or what he said, but that Mogadishu looked nothing like we expected.

The idea was to write the Taliban of Africa story, but what we found was different. Somalis, weary of war, were ready to give the ICU a chance. The group had done what no power before had managed since the collapse of the government in 1991 — overcome clan politics and the never-ending fighting of rich and corrupt warlords. 

In a country awash in weapons, there were few AK47s on the streets. There was cautious optimism. There was a chance for diplomacy and negotiations. 

Aweys at the time told me that the ICU should be given "a chance.”

They were not. 

Two months after our interview, Ethiopia invaded Somalia with implicit U.S. support to oust the ICU — one of the most catastrophic foreign policy decisions in Somalia’s history. Somalis rose to defend their sovereignty against longtime rival Ethiopia. A small militant youth movement within the ICU known as Al Shabab grew to a fighting force during the two-year bloody war.

When Ethiopia was eventually pushed back across the border, Al Shabab, hardened by war and pumped up on power, could not be contained. It turned their nationalistic agenda into a global one 

Former ICU leader Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was appointed the country’s president. Then-U.S. secretary of state Hillary Clinton shook his hand at the United Nations and said he was the "best hope” for Somalia in a long time. 

Essentially, two years of war and thousands upon thousands of deaths served only to keep the same man in power.

In 2010, Al Shabab officially pledged allegiance to Al Qaeda and was listed by governments worldwide as a terrorist group. On Dec. 23, 2010, Aweys, who had fled to Eritrea during the war, merged his Hizbul Islam faction with Al Shabab.

 


 

Fishing boats in the harbour of Somalia's capital, Mogadishu.
Fishing boats in the harbour of Somalia's capital, Mogadishu.   (MICHELLE SHEPHARD)  

Terrorism is often, especially after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks and again today, regarded in black-and-white terms. Terrorist or not. As George W. Bush famously said, you’re with us, or with them. 

The reality is never so obvious when put in context.

Interviewing Aweys today is as frustrating as it was 10 years ago. He is verbose, but says little. The only clear fact is that he believes a strict, literal interpretation of sharia, or Islamic, law should govern Muslim countries. 

Aweys told me he doesn’t support Daesh’s incursion into Somalia or its members’ nihilistic attacks on the West, but spoke glowingly of Abu al Baghdadi’s declaration of a caliphate in Syria and Iraq in a fashion that was similar to his praise of Osama bin Laden’s vision a decade ago. 

But unlike many hardliners he does not rule out the possibility of Western alliances, whether they are political or financial. During our interview he name dropped various diplomats he had met, such as the European Union human right’s adviser. Most hardliners would also not surrender even if their lives hung in the balance.

Until he renounces his past though, he will not be given amnesty as other high-profile Shabab defectors have, along with hundreds of foot soldiers. 

At the end of the interview I ask him if he’s the same person I interviewed a decade ago, or if experience had changed him.

Aweys hesitated and then looked at the translator: "She can decide that for herself.”

Timeline

1991 Mohamed Siad Barre ousted amidst a deadly power struggle between clan warlords.

1992 U.S. marines arrive to help UN peacekeepers restore order.

1993 U.S. army Rangers are killed when Somali militias shoot down two US helicopters in Mogadishu.

1995 UN peacekeepers leave, having failed.

2006 Following fierce fighting, militias loyal to the Islamic Courts Union defeat clan warlords and take Mogadishu; Ethiopian troops enter Somalia.

2007 UN Security Council approves six-month peacekeeping mission; African Union troops land in Mogadishu amid battles between Islamist insurgents and government forces backed by Ethiopian troops.

2010 Al Shabab announces alliance with Al Qaeda and launches a major offensive in the capital.

2011 (July) UN declares famine in Somalia and airlifts aid to Mogadishu; Al Shabab pulls out of Mogadishu.

2011 (October) Kenyan troops enter Somalia to attack rebels they accuse of kidnappings in Kenya.

2012 MPs elect Hassan Sheikh Mohamud president over incumbent Sharif Sheikh Ahmed. 

2013 (June) Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys is arrested by government troops.

2013 (September) Al Shabab kill 60 people in a Nairobi shopping centre in retaliation for Kenya's military involvement in Somalia.

2016 February African Union leaders increase their military presence after weeks of Al Shabab attacks.

2017 Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo elected president.

Source: BBC


Share on Social Media

Somalia:$17 million external support has not been channeled through the country's single treasury account

Waagacusub.net -Auditor General Mohamed Ali alias Afgoi has exposed missing millions of dollars from key departments within the Federal Government of Somalia [FGS], in what could raise questions about government expenditures. In his report, Afgoi said 25 entities and three embassies have been audited. Unsupported expenditure amounts to $9M; contracts worth $31M not registered with auditor general's office, the existence of unauthorized bank accounts outside the Treasury Single Account. Full Article

 

Al-qaida Share ,IBS bank Somalia launches Visa Card Payment

Waagacusub.net - IBS Bank Somalia, which is believed to have the largest amount of money, Al-Qaeda Finance Secretary Fazul Abdallah from Comoros has started issuing Visa Card Payments for the first time. Al-Shabaab's finance secretary confirmed that Mohamed Ali Warsame had $ 157 million in cash, according to Khalif Ereg, who was later bribed with $ 2 million. Full Article

 

Oman hold off plucky Somalia to make main draw

Waagacusub.net - Somalia displayed a lot of pluck but were left ruing their luck as Oman advanced to the main draw of the FIFA Arab Cup with a 2-1 win Sunday evening. The Omanis scored twice in the first half of the lively game at the Sheikh Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium before Somalia pulled one pack nine minutes after the break. Full Article

 

Kenya resumes its diplomatic mission in Somalia

Waagacusub.net - Kenyan ambassador to Somalia Lucas Tumbo has today arrived in Somali capital, Mogadishu barely a week the two countries agreed restore their diplomatic ties. Full Article

 

Several Killed in Mortar Shells Near Somalia President's Residence

Waagacusub.net - Several people were killed and a number of others wounded in mortar shells that struck targets near Somalia president's residence in the capital Mogadishu on Wednesday, local officials have confirmed. Full Article

 

Journalists barred from covering Somali leaders' meeting

The Associated Somali Journalists is deeply concerned that journalists were today barred from covering the meeting of the leaders of the Federal Government of Somalia and Federal Member States (FMSs) as well as the Governor and Mayor of Mogadishu. Full Article

 

COVID-19 guidance for journalists and media houses in Somalia

ASOJ.ORG - Associated Somali Journalists has today published New guidance (advices) setting out how journalists and media houses in Somalia can meet their media duties as they navigate the effects of the coronavirus pandemic. Full Article

 

U.S. and EU Diplomats Support President Farmajo to Tear Somalia Apart

After 30 years of dictatorship and civil war, the Somali people pulled off a qualified consensus on forming a new state that is different from the obliterated one. The President of the Federal Republic of Somalia is vested with the awesome responsibility and authority to steer the formation of the new state. Successive elected presidents strived to some extent to fulfill their awesome responsibilities with the exception of President Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo who strived to tear Somalia apart for good. Full Article

 

Al-Shabaab collected an estimated $20 million dollars from South Somalia alone - Per month

Al-Shabaab is more than just a terrorist group. In 2011, its annual revenue was in the region of $70–100 million per year. In 2018, the President of the Somali Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI) confirmed that Al-Shabaab collected an estimated $20 million dollars from South Somalia alone. Full Article

 

Somalia A Divided Legacy: Hormuud Telecom and Political Islam

The Chairman of Hormuud Telecom Group Ahmed Nur Ali Jim'ale was a kingpin in Al-Shabaab's charcoal-sugar trading cycle that funded its activities. In September 2010, he founded ZAAD, a mobile-to-mobile money-transfer business that struck a deal with Al-Shabaab to make money transfers more anonymous by eliminating the need to show identification. Full Article

 


Leave a comment

  Tip

  Tip

  Tip

  Tip

  Tip


Somalia:$17 million external support has not been channeled through the country's single treasury account

Waagacusub.net -Auditor General Mohamed Ali alias Afgoi has exposed missing millions of dollars from key departments within the Federal Government of Somalia [FGS], in what could raise questions about government expenditures. In his report, Afgoi said 25 entities and three embassies have been audited. Unsupported expenditure amounts to $9M; contracts worth $31M not registered with auditor general's office, the existence of unauthorized bank accounts outside the Treasury Single Account.

Al-qaida Share ,IBS bank Somalia launches Visa Card Payment

Waagacusub.net - IBS Bank Somalia, which is believed to have the largest amount of money, Al-Qaeda Finance Secretary Fazul Abdallah from Comoros has started issuing Visa Card Payments for the first time. Al-Shabaab's finance secretary confirmed that Mohamed Ali Warsame had $ 157 million in cash, according to Khalif Ereg, who was later bribed with $ 2 million.

UGANDA: New Cabinet Members and Ministers of State

I hereby inform the country that By virtue of the Authority given to the President of Uganda by Articles: 108(2), 108A(1), 113(1) and 114(1) of the 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, I hereby appoint H.E. the Vice President, Rt. Hon. Prime Minister, Honourable Cabinet Ministers and other Ministers as indicated below:

Journalists barred from covering Somali leaders' meeting

The Associated Somali Journalists is deeply concerned that journalists were today barred from covering the meeting of the leaders of the Federal Government of Somalia and Federal Member States (FMSs) as well as the Governor and Mayor of Mogadishu.

ASOJ strongly condemns the wounding of a journalist & arresting another.

ASOJ.ORG - Associated Somali Journalists (ASOJ) is deeply concerned about the escalating violence against Somali journalists in the Gedo region, particularly in Beled Hawo district on the Somali-Kenyan border where a journalist was injured by security forces and another was arbitrarily imprisoned by the local authority.

Somalia:$17 million external support has not been channeled through the country's single treasury account

Waagacusub.net -Auditor General Mohamed Ali alias Afgoi has exposed missing millions of dollars from key departments within the Federal Government of Somalia [FGS], in what could raise questions about government expenditures. In his report, Afgoi said 25 entities and three embassies have been audited. Unsupported expenditure amounts to $9M; contracts worth $31M not registered with auditor general's office, the existence of unauthorized bank accounts outside the Treasury Single Account. Full Article

 

Al-qaida Share ,IBS bank Somalia launches Visa Card Payment

Waagacusub.net - IBS Bank Somalia, which is believed to have the largest amount of money, Al-Qaeda Finance Secretary Fazul Abdallah from Comoros has started issuing Visa Card Payments for the first time. Al-Shabaab's finance secretary confirmed that Mohamed Ali Warsame had $ 157 million in cash, according to Khalif Ereg, who was later bribed with $ 2 million. Full Article

 

"UGANDA'S FIGHT AGAINST COVID 19 VIRUS, MAY DWINDLE OR SPARK UNLESS EMBRACED"

Waagacusub.net - Globally, scientists are camping in Laboratories to find a solution to the Covid-19 pandemic. Sometime in 2020, Dr Patrick Engeu Ogwang, an associate professor of Pharmacy at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Uganda, and a team of other researchers under PHARMABIOTRAC developed a herbal biomedical invention called Covidex. This innovation is said to be a broad spectrum natural remedy intended to manage and treat the Covid-19- Corona virus. Full Article

 

Somali Journalists Launch 'Disinformation Lab' to Combat Spread of Fake News.

Waagacusub.net - The Federation of Somali Journalists has launched a campaign to combat the spread of false information, fake news, hate speech and propaganda. The federation says Somalia is already seeing a huge spike in social media misinformation campaigns ahead of elections expected before the end of July. Full Article

 

Oman hold off plucky Somalia to make main draw

Waagacusub.net - Somalia displayed a lot of pluck but were left ruing their luck as Oman advanced to the main draw of the FIFA Arab Cup with a 2-1 win Sunday evening. The Omanis scored twice in the first half of the lively game at the Sheikh Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium before Somalia pulled one pack nine minutes after the break. Full Article

 

Hormuud telecom and Al-Shabaab's Strategy of Destroying Mobile Communication Masts

Hormuud's Assault on African Peacekeepers Figure 14: African Peace Keepers Hormuud launched a scorching public campaign against the Kenyan military forces in AMISOM in late August 2019. Full Article

 

Former Intel official stripped from NISA membership

Former Intel official stripped from NISA membership Full Article

 

PM KHEYRE USELESS AND COSTY OVERSEAS TRIPS.

PM KHEYRE USELESS AND COSTY OVERSEAS TRIPS. Full Article

 

Abiy says 'New Year' will be celebrated in Eritrea, Ethiopian Airlines to resume flights

Abiy says 'New Year' will be celebrated in Eritrea, Ethiopian Airlines to resume flights Full Article

 

Massive rise in Islamist militant attacks in Africa

Massive rise in Islamist militant attacks in Africa Full Article